These are test question samples from the American Academy of Stem Cell Physicians Board Examination.
1.    Macrophages are generally divided into groups namely M1 and M2 macrophages.  Which type of macrophage is thought to play a role in tissue regeneration and by what mechanism?  Please select the best answer.
A.  Type 1 macrophage by phagocytosis and the release of IL-10.
B.  Type 2 macrophage by the release of Nitric Oxide and Citrulline
C.  Synergetic effect of M1 and M2 Macrophages with Mesenchymal stem cells
D.  Type 2 macrophage by the release of arginase and ornithine
2.    Select the true statement concerning Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis?
A.   Vasculogenesis builds upon existing vessels while Angiogenesis does not.
B.     Angiogenesis builds upon existing vessels thru the mechanism of SDF-1
C.     Vasculogenesis builds new vessels thru the mechanism of SDF-1
D.    Neither is dependent upon hypoxia
3.    Which of the following cell signaling methods requires “close contact”?
A.   Endocrine
B.    Paracrine
C.    Autocrine
D.   Juxtacrine
4.     Which of the following statements is false?
A.    The  general cell numbers in 5 CCs of obese fat is less than 5 CCs of lean fat.
B.     Obese fat has more Treg cells than lean fat
C.     Lean fat has more Macrophage 2 cells than obese fat.
D.    IL-10 and IGF-1 can make obese fat take on a more lean fat profile
5.     All of the following are considered Yamanaka Factors except the following.
A.   Oct 3/4
B.    SOC 2
C.    cMYC
D.   Nanog
6.    Auto immune diseases are usually characterized by an overabundance of T reg cells.
True or False
7.    Hyperbaric Oxygen has a profound effect on stem cell release.  What mechanism is most responsible for this effect?
A.   Increased oxygen will stimulate stem cells in various areas to become more effective and active
B.     Oxygen will result in a significant local release of stem cells in the area of diseased tissue.
C.     Hyperbaric oxygen via a nitric oxide mechanism causes the release of significant numbers of stem cells from the bone marrow.
8.     Intra articular Saline injections can have a therapeutic effect on joint pathology.
True or False
9.     In the world of Regenerative Medicine all the following are true concerning Parathyroid Hormone except which one
A.    It can be chondro regenerative in nature
B.      It can increase the numbers of stem cells released from marrow.
C.     It can make white fat take on characteristics of brown fat.
10.  Most allogenic cells including Umbilical Cord Blood are considered to be immune privileged.
True or False
11.   Muse cells are found only in Adipose tissue.
True or False